Monday, May 25, 2020

Essay on Case Study Dupont Divestiture of Conoco

FI561- Mergers and Acquisitions Week 5 Case Study: DuPont Divestiture of Conoco November 27, 2011 . Abstract In this paper, we are examining the 1998 DuPont spin off of Conoco by analyzing the transaction itself. Then, I look at one of the possible alternatives to the chosen transaction and compare that alternative with the actual long term impacts of the sale. I will then decide and recommend which option would have been the best utilized by DuPont over the long-term in order to generate the most revenue from its ownership of Conoco. DuPont purchased Conoco in 1981 and it was the largest merger in corporate history at that time. The purchase gave DuPont a secure source of petroleum feedstocks needed for many of its fiber†¦show more content†¦Conoco was involved in different aspects of the oil industry, however, which somewhat sheltered DuPont against sudden drops in the price of oil. A spin-off of Conoco meant that executives would be able to address these two issues at the same time. To determine if this was the most appropriate course of action requires looking at the situation through the eyes of CFO. This will be accomplished by: analyzing the actions that took place and possible alternatives. These different elements will help determine it the spin-off was a financially prudent transaction over the long term, or if an alternative transaction would have been more financially worthwhile. The Actions of DuPont In 1998, the price of crude oil went into a major decline with prices collapsing to below $20 per barrel after reaching highs around $37 during the Iran oil embargo of 1979. (â€Å"Chartsbin†) Some companies within the oil industry such as Conoco In some cases were integrated producers that were somewhat protected against an overall collapse in the price of oil. Conoco had operations in different segments of the industry including: drilling, refining, transportation and production. The combination of these segments helped provide Conoco with consistent profits those profits were not as high as DuPont executives had hoped whenShow MoreRelatedCase Analysis : Dupont Company1135 Words   |  5 PagesWRITTEN ANALYSIS Initially, DuPont started operating in 1802 as a gunpowder manufacturer supplying the U.S. army under the president Thomas Jefferson. It is based in Delaware. The company operated in different industries because they had a tradition of technological innovation in businesses as diverse as food and nutrition, healthcare, agriculture, fashion and apparel, home and construction, electronics, transportation and energy. During the year it evolved into a giant chemical and textileRead MoreEssay on Dupont Divestiture1607 Words   |  7 PagesDuPont’s Divestiture of Conoco | Analysis of the Merger | | DuPont began life in 1802, as a gunpowder manufacturer supplying the US Army under President Thomas Jefferson. The company had a long tradition of technological innovations in business and it continues to serve worldwide markets including food and nutrition;  health care; agriculture; fashion and apparel; home and construction; and electronics. Among some of its inventions are nylon stockings invented in 1939, Teflon for pans, KevlarRead MoreDivestiture of Dupont Company1274 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Running Head: DIVERSTITURE OF DUPONT COMPANY DIVERSTITURE OF DUPONT COMPANY I suggest a divestiture model that will enable Dupont to sell a minority stake in Conaco. A partial sale, in the range of 40 to 50 per cent, will enable Dupont to make upfront payment to reduce its debt load as well as ongoing interests in the company through its remaining stake. Basically, such an arrangement would allow the businesses to act in a more commercial manner, thus increasing the value of Duponts remainingRead MoreExxon Mobile Merger13851 Words   |  56 Pagesdeal terms, discounted cash flow (DCF) spreadsheet valuation models, DCF formula valuation models, valuation sensitivity analysis, the value consequences of the merger, antitrust and competitive reaction patterns, and the implications of the clinical study for merger theory. JEL classification: G34, G20 Keywords: Mergers; Acquisitions; Alliances The Exxon-Mobil Merger: An Archetype The high level of merger activities throughout the world between 1994 and 2000 reflected major change forces. TheseRead MoreA Financial Perspective on Mergers and Acquisitions and the Economy19349 Words   |  78 Pagesin 1986 and 36 of 3000 deals in 1985 (Grimm, 1985). There were only seven billion-dollar plus deals in total, prior to 1980. In addition to these takeovers, mergers, and leveraged buyouts, there were numerous corporate restructurings involving divestitures, spinoffs, and large stock repurchases for cash and debt. The gains to shareholders from these transactions have been huge. The gains to selling-firm shareholders from mergers and acquisition activity in the period 1977-86 total $346 billion (inRead MoreExxon Mobile Capstone40455 Words   |  162 Pages........................................................33   Acquisitions ............................................................................................................................................ ...........................34   Divestiture.........................................................................................................................................................................35   Joint  Venture  and  Alliances ............................................

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Gay Marriage Should Be Legal - 1179 Words

GAY MARRIAGES Some states such as Iowa legalized gay marriage through the action of judicial interpretation based on the state’s constitutional stipulations while other states such as Vermont legalized gay marriage through legislation initiatives. These cases demonstrate the government is the sole body that can dictate the validity of whatever is to be regarded as a marriage, and in this case gay marriage. The power to validate marriage is still observed among the private citizens, religious institutions, in families and in the civil society as well. The society, religious institutions and the state seem to be influencing the degree of freedom of marriage by deciding who marries and who can’t marry. These parties’ involvement in the issue of marriage has significantly raised fundamental issues about the biased nature of promoting equity in granting marriage rights most especially to homosexual couples. The government engages in action of granting dignity to a potential couple for marriage. However, religious institutions take up the role of administering the right of marriage. The society should accept the existence of homosexual people because their presence does not directly harm or pose any threats to the society. In the article titled ‘Another Argument for Legalizing Same-Sex Marriages’, Donald Marron suggests that â€Å"It would benefit those who want to get married, while harming, as best as I can tell, no one. (In econo-speak, that’s called a Pareto improvement, and theShow MoreRelatedGay Marriage Should Be Legal1205 Words   |  5 PagesHoward Sociology 1301-93431 Gay Marriage Getting married is something that most people do when they find love, which it is an important event in their life. The GLBT (gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender) community now get the legal right of same-sex marriage, which they have fought for throughout the years; on the other hand, some opponents of same-sex marriage have called for a constitut ional change towards it. Although there were some countries that allowed gay marriage before the United StatesRead MoreGay Marriage Should Be Legal1159 Words   |  5 PagesAmendment, which puts a ban on gay marriage. This amendment entitles to equal rights to the gay community, ending toleration of discrimination in jobs, rights protecting gays from hate crimes,rights allowing advancement in government. However, the concept of gay marriage is still not considered a right the American people should extend to homosexuals. II. The vast majority of opponents believe marriage should be between one woman and one man, meaning marriage should be between members of the oppositeRead MoreGay Marriage Should Be Legal1574 Words   |  7 Pagesequal rights. Gays and lesbians are consistently denied rights that are typically taken for granted by the average American. Specifically, gay and lesbian couples are denied the right to marry even if they are outstanding citizens. They are held at an unfair disadvantage solely because of their sexual orientation. This discrimination must stop, because gay and lesbian couples are law-abiding citizens too, who should be afforded the same rights as heterosexual couples. Marriage is about love andRead MoreGay Marriage Should Be Legal1564 Words   |  7 PagesWhat is marriage? Recently, people argue with respect to the definition of marriage. What happened to marriage? To get married is a very important event for almost everyone. Especially for women, marriage and giv ing a birth could be the two biggest events of their lives. Many people believe that getting married to the one whom he or she loves is natural. However, what do you think if you cannot get married to him or her because it is socially unacceptable? 100 years ago different colored peopleRead MoreShould Gay Marriage Be Legal?778 Words   |  3 PagesShould Gay Marriage Be Legal? â€Å"†¦I now pronounce you husband and wife†¦Ã¢â‚¬  One would normally hear this when attending a wedding. In tradition marriage has been between one male and one female who love each other. But how would one feel if they heard â€Å"I now pronounce you groom and groom† or how about â€Å"†¦bride and bride...†? In the last 50 years the number of same-sex couples has increased. The on-going argument between the government and the people is â€Å"Should gay marriage be legal?† Although some sayRead MoreGay Marriage Should Be Legal1126 Words   |  5 PagesJune 26, 2015 for gay marriage to be legal in all fifty states, thirty seven out of the fifty and Washington D.C already legalized gay marriage. Many support gay marriage and many do not, with widespread values and reasons for and against it. Due to religion and rights people across the nation have differing views and opinions of it.In a five to four vote in the Supreme Court gay marriage becam e legalized in all fifty states. Shortly after that a few marriage officiators and marriage licenses peopleRead MoreThe Gay Marriage Should Be Legal947 Words   |  4 PagesDefending Gay Marriage During the last few years, homosexuality has become an important issue for debate. Moreover, homosexuals have taken their case further by claiming their right to marry. Same-sex marriage, usually known as â€Å"gay marriage†, is the marriage between two people from the same biological sex (Doskow1). Since 2000, eleven countries have approved the legalization of gay marriage worldwide: Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Canada, South Africa, Norway, Sweden, Portugal, Iceland, ArgentinaRead MoreGay Marriage Should Be Legal1480 Words   |  6 PagesNew World Dictionary defines the word married as being husband and wife, yet there are millions of gay activists who are fighting for a new meaning. They believe marriage is more than a piece of paper and a set of rings. The hope is that marriage could be defined as a â€Å"public recognition of a private commitment† or â€Å"emotional, financial, and psychological bond† between two people (Sullivan 53). Gay activists belie ve that taking away the ability to have a publicly recognized relationship or an acceptedRead MoreGay Marriage Should Be Legal1351 Words   |  6 Pageshappened for United States, gay marriage became legal in all 50 states. In most states it already was but the remaining 13 became legal this year. There are many concerns regarding gay marriage, and the effects of them involve many legislative, cultural, religious and family issues. Gay marriage is controversial because a lot of people do not approve of it, they think it is immoral, unnatural, and not what the traditional concept of â€Å"marriage† really means. Opponents of gay marriage say it is only meantRead MoreGay Marriage Should Be Legal925 Words   |  4 PagesGay Marriage jenisea Phoenix Community College Gay Marriage What if you met someone and fell deep in love? What if they meant everything in the world to you? Wouldn’t you do whatever it takes to make them happy? What if i told you that you couldn’t? and that no matter how much you showed someone that you are meant to be that you couldn’t marry them? Wouldn’t that tear you apart inside?. â€Å"The Human Rights Campaign Foundation states that

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Benefits Of Non Renewable Energy - 788 Words

Non-Renewable energy is the energy which is taken from the sources that are available on the earth in limited quantity and will vanish fifty-sixty years from now. Non-renewable sources aren’t friendly to the environment and can have serious impacts on people’s health. They’re called non-renewable because they can’t be generated again within a small amount of time. Non-renewable sources are existent in the form of fossil fuels, natural gas, oil and coal. Now, just like Renewable sources do, Non-Renewable sources also include pros and cons. Pros, Non-renewable sources are low in price and pose no difficulty to utilize. You can with ease fill up the tank of a car and power a motor vehicle. People can use short quantity of nuclear energy to†¦show more content†¦Why should we conserve Energy? Energy has to be taken care of to protect our environment from huge changes, to rescue the depleting resources for our to come generations. The rate at which the energy is being created and consumed can harm earth in many ways. In other words, it helps us to save the environment. We can reduce those impacts by consuming less energy. The cost of energy is rising every year. It is important for us to realize how energy is useful to us and how can we avoid it getting wasted. Home energy audits in Calabasas will develop custom solutions to keep the energy efficiency of your home at its highest level. Energy in India defines energy and electricity manufacture, depletion and importation in India. Energy policy of India designates the politics of India associated with energy. Electricity segment in India is the central article of electricity in India. At India, The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy offers data in the form of a yearly report concerning advancement in the energy area. India is a remaining energy distributor. India was 3rd highest coal producer in 2009. India carries importations of oil and coal. Energy conservation has arisen as t he main policy goal, and the Energy Conservation Act in 2001, was approved by the Indian Parliament in September of 2001, 35.5% percent of the populace still live deprived of the right to use electricity. This Act necessitates great

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Theory and Measurement of Economic Externalities MyAssignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about the Theory and Measurement of Economic Externalities. Answer: Introduction: The essay focuses on the economic analysis of the article on discovery and effects of new genes on the bread wheat production in Australian economy. The article says that researchers have found 21000 new variety of genes in 16 different varieties of wheat. Also the variations among the common wheat varieties have also been discovered. According to professor David Edwards, these new discoveries could help in the creation of disease resistant wheat varieties as well as it could open up opportunities in the wheat production in the world. Hence, this discovery of new genes has a positive effect on the horticulture industry of Australia. This not only would increase the variety of wheat to be produced, but it would improve the quality of wheat also by making it disease resistant (Logan, 2017). The market for wheat is a market with perfect competition. Here, the product is homogeneous; there are many buyers and sellers; a single seller has no power to influence the market price, hence, the sellers are price taker (Kirzner 2015). The discovery and application of new disease resistant genes in the wheat is going to increase the supply of the wheat in the market. As better quality of wheat is ensured, and disease resistant genes ensure that the level of crop damage due to diseases is reduced, the supply of wheat will rise in the market (Tomek Kaiser, 2014). The above figure shows that initially the market equilibrium is at E1, with price P1 and quantity supplied Q1. With the introduction of new genes in the wheat varieties, the crop damage is reduced and better quality is supplied. Thus, supply of wheat rises in the market, and supply curve shifts rightward from S1 to S2. In the short run, demand will not change as the income and preferences of the consumers do not change. Thus, there is excess supply in the market at the initial price P1. To absorb this excess supply, the producers will decrease the price to P2 to reach the new market equilibrium at E2. The new equilibrium price is less than the initial equilibrium price and quantity is more than the initial quantity supplied. Price elasticity of demand is the change in the quantity demanded due to one percent change in the price of the product. As wheat is an agricultural product and it is a necessary good; hence, wheat is relatively price inelastic. Even if the price changes, the demand for wheat does not get affected much (Thimmapuram Kim, 2013) Figure 2 shows the impact of price changes on the quantity demanded of wheat. As it is an agricultural and necessary product, changes in the price will not affect the quantity demanded much. It has a relatively inelastic demand curve. When the supply increases, the supply curve shifts rightwards to S2 from S1. The price falls from P1 to P2. Due to price inelasticity, the fall in price does not have a significant effect on the quantity demanded, as it rises from Q1 to Q2. Thus, revenue of the producers will not increase much (Wang Dalal, 2015). The discovery of new genes in the wheat varieties has a positive externality on the wheat production. Researchers assure that this new invention would help in the production of better quality and disease resistant wheat. The benefit will be enjoyed by everyone in the society. However, in this case, consumers will enjoy better and more bread wheat at a lower price. Therefore, producers might incur losses, as they would spend more for better quality seeds but would get less revenue. To solve this problem of positive externality, the government can give subsidies to the farmers. This subsidy would increase the revenue of the farmers, while the consumers do not have to pay extra price (Lin, 2014). This essay has discussed the possible effects of the discovery of new genes in the wheat varieties as highlighted in the article, and the impact on the prices of wheat. The new 21000 genes in 16 varieties of common wheat breed are opening a new direction in the wheat production in Australia. This would not only offer better quality of wheat but also increase the supply, as diseases in the crop would be reduced. As demand remains unchanged in the short run, the price of wheat would fall and revenue would not increase much. Hence, to prevent the effects of positive externalities, the government should provide subsidies to the farmers. References: Kirzner, I. M. (2015).Competition and entrepreneurship. University of Chicago press. Lin, S. A. (Ed.). (2014).Theory and measurement of economic externalities. Academic Press. Logan, T. (2017). Scientists make discovery that 'shakes up' foundations of wheat genome research. ABC News. Retrieved from https://www.abc.net.au/news/rural/2017-03-09/researchers-find-new-bread-wheat-genes/8337326 Thimmapuram, P. R., Kim, J. (2013). Consumers' price elasticity of demand modeling with economic effects on electricity markets using an agent-based model.IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid,4(1), 390-397. Tomek, W. G., Kaiser, H. M. (2014).Agricultural product prices. Cornell University Press. Wang, W., Dalal, R. C. (2015). Nitrogen management is the key for low-emission wheat production in Australia: A life cycle perspective.European Journal of Agronomy,66, 74-82.

Saturday, April 11, 2020

A Human Resource Department an Example of the Topic Government and Law Essays by

A Human Resource Department A Human Resource Department plays a significant role in growth of an organization. Recruitment and Selection is the process of hiring the right candidate for a suitable job. It is a crucial step as an organizations success and growth depend upon the efficient employees. Need essay sample on "A Human Resource Department" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed In particular, recruitment is the method of finding appropriate people according to the available jobs. Moreover, it also includes the process of recognizing the need of employing for the organization. Recruiting is done by the HR Department. As soon as a vacancy arises, the need of a replacement is felt. The job description is then reviewed and ammended. An employee requirement and specification is written. Recruiting is done through several ways which include advertising through newspapers, providing online information, through a job center and many more. A candidates suitability is then assessed through his qualification and skills required for a respective job. However, the candidate is usually required to fill a job application form or take a test or give an interview. Hence, the applicants are short listed for an interview as done by the recruitment panel. The recruitment panel works upon the interview and then decides about the employee as followed by an approval. However, that person is selected who meets the required criteria of the job including his knowledge skills, experience and more (Peter vs. Marsden, 979-991). To fill in the post, recruiting can be done within the firm known as Internal Recruitment and External Recruitment i.e. recruiting people from outside. Through Internal Recruitment, extensive saving can be done. Those chosen from with in the firm require less training as compared to the outsider as the Insider is quite aware of the companys strengths and weaknesses. However, the organization is even aware of the employees potential and so can better assess him for the available job. The organization might not greatly be affected by the idea of someone who is used to of the working method of another firm. Internal promotion will motivate other employees to do hard work. While on the other hand, internal recruitment has certain disadvantages. Promotion of one might hurt others; the promoted person has to be replaces by another candidate. Moreover, an insider may not be capable enough of providing fundamental criticism required for the effective working of the company. He might possess less then the ideal mix of competencies. Infighting and inbreeding might reduce organizational growth (Recruiting from internal sources, Richardson Margaret, Recruitment Strategies, p-8). The other hand, External Recruitment may be beneficial since the company might profit with new ideas, talents and experiences of an outsider. However, this is much costly and the company might suffer appointing somebody who is inefficient as the candidates come from less reliable source and might not be inefficient when it comes to practice as compared to paper work and an interview. Analyzing the recruitment procedure, one might say that it is beneficial since if hiring is not done, the present working employees might be required to do over time which will in turn increase stress thereby having a negative impact on the companys working. This might even result in loss of more employees too. However, recruitment results in better employee satisfaction and contentment and organizational efficiency. However, recruitment may have disadvantages as poor recruitment decisions might have a bad impact on the staff morale and the organizations working. Hence it might limit the achievement of future tasks to be achieved and so lose its market share. Selection is a process whereby which an organization chooses the best from the lists of applicants who meet the requirement criteria for an available post. The selection process completes in a certain period of time. It starts after the applicant has submitted his application which is then reviewed and analyzed by the HR Officer, in order to check whether the person meets up the requirement or not. If the applicant is felt to meet the criteria stated then all the qualified applications will be dealt and screened by the Selection Committee (Bach Stephen, 125-130). The major area of concern will be the qualifications essential for that specific post, experience and his past performance, characteristics and more. Once this screening process is completed, the Selection Committee meets to finalize the candidates, to fix and confirm the interview schedules along with the interview material which is then decided. The applicant might be required to take a test. Hence, the Human Resource Department will inform the chosen candidates giving them all the necessary details of the interview, presentations and more. There are certain factors which might influence the selection process. Such factors are the size of the organization, complexity within the organization, the attitude about hiring among the workers, the availability of the labor, the laws of the state, the economic and political pressure and more. The Selection Process is quite important since a replacement for a vacant position is always required for the organizations efficient working and growth. If new candidates are not hired, then the existing current employees would have to work more and do over time. Moreover, they will be required to be paid more thereby not producing the required high-quality work. This might have a negative impact on the organizations efficiency and might reduce the quality of work. The other advantages are such as the new employee might benefit the organization with his talent, idea and work experience. Paying him will be much more helpful in maintaining the high-standard of the company as compared to paying those doing over time. On the other hand, Selection and Hiring process may end up creating problems for the organization as the selection committee might make some mistakes. Hence there will be no guarantee of a flourishing job performance. (Jakel Thomas, 100). As tests and interviews are no reliable ways of determining a persons capability when it comes to working in an organization. Hence the reliability and validity of the selection committee can not be measured. Moreover, the recommendations made and the references given about the appointed candidate may not always be trustworthy. Therefore, it is important for the selection committee to correctly analyze the applicant and make the right decision as appointing the wrong person might have a negative impact on the organizations growth and working efficiency. This will in turn harm the companys name and reputation which will gradually result in instability in its in many areas and overall performance. Human Resource Department performs several duties such as recruiting, selecting and orienting new employees, writing and evaluating job descriptions, administrating and monitoring policies and more. In short, it deals with the issues related to people like recruiting, safety, motivation, training, communication and more. An HR Department is essential for an organization since it has several responsibilities. For an efficient working, the Human Resource Department is required to adopt such strategies which will prove to be beneficial in its performance. Moreover, it is the duty of the Human Resource Department to help the organization achieve its desired goals by providing it with well-trained employees, maintaining a good quality of work and ethical policies and more. An HR Department requires people with good communication skills, leadership capabilities, recruiting staff, proper accounting and record keeping. Thus, according to the recent researches, the HR Department and the HRM field is improving with time (David, Hugh and Patrick, 309-319). It is generally said that the Human Resource Department works to protect the company and not the employees. Hence its working will effect the organization directly. However, there are certain disadvantages of having a Human Resource Department in an organization as the department fails in several organizations due to a number of reasons. One of the major reasons for failure is that few Human Resource departments have poor customer skills due to which they are unable to interact and communicate with people on professional level. This way they end up hiring the wrong staff. Hence, either more vacancies arise or job performance level falls. Another disadvantage of the Human Resource Department is that some of them are not properly focused on gaining benefits for the company. This way the Human Resource Department hires inefficient employees. This results in the waste of time and energy. This also results in the companys turn over issues. Moreover, at times the HR Department proves not to be confidential. So the information confided to them by the employees, either related to their personal life or regular business issues are passed on. This breaks the trust of employees and may lead to affect their performance having a bad impact on the organization. According to certain researches, not all organizations need the Human Resource Department, particularly those who can manage those activities with in the organization. Some of the Human Resource areas are quite questionable which includes methodology and data reliability. The reason of this poor performance is operational inefficiencies. In big organizations, the HR Department is usually centralized, situated in the Head Office usually. Due to this reason, every employee can not interact with the Department, situated at the head office. While on the other hand, since there are a number of employees in small organizations, the HR Department again fails to interact with every one. Hence, this results in lack of communication and interaction between the HR Department and the workers in all the branches. The HR Department at times fail to rate a candidate up to a certain level which can easily be done by that specialized department. This again creates problem at the time of hiring the right candidates. Other issues such as mismanagement at the part of the Department, lack of co-ordination with other departments and more might add-in to the disadvantages of having the Human Resource Department in an organization. Thus, the Human Resource Department greatly influences the working of an organization. It plays an important role in improving a companys efficiency thereby producing quality work. Although, an HR Department is quite essential for an organization, it is important that the department successfully performs its duties and help the organization in achieving its goals. REFERENCES: Bach Stephen, Managing Human Resources, Personal Management and Transitions. David Collings, Sullion Hugh, Guniggle Patrick, 2007, Emerging themes and contemporary debates, International Human Resource Management in the 21st Century, Vol.17, No.4, 309-319. Delay Doug, HR Fails to link Effectiveness to Performance, July 29, 2003. Dr. Sullvian John, Selecting an HR Strategy. Is Your HR Department Friend or Foe? August 10, 2005. Jakel Thomas, IPM 213, Human Resource Management, MCGraw Hill. Peter Vs. Marsden, 1994, Recruitment Methods, The Hiring Process, Vol.37, No.7, 979-991. Richardson Margaret, Recruitment Strategies, Managing/Effecting Recruiting Process.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

A True Nature of the Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect in a Society

A True Nature of the Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect in a Society Discussion on the Assignment Additional Page The solutions to the problems defined in the project have to be properly organized and based on credible information and the results of the observations. Child abuse is the concept that touches upon millions of families (Cloitre, Cohen, Koenen, 2011).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on A True Nature of the Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect in a Society specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some children face sexual abuse problems, many children have psychological problems because of parental neglect, and there are also the children, who have the problems based on physical abuse (Lemoncelli, 2012). The outcomes of child abuse usually depend on a variety of factors like the age of a child, the type of relation between a child and a perpetrator, and, of course, the type of maltreatment (Child Welfare Information Gateway, 2013). This is why the chosen problem, a variety of child abuse effects, seems to be the most crucial in the project. In general, the evaluation of the behavior of the children suffered from abuse and their parental neglect shows that the effects may be long-term and short-term (Sousa, Herrenkohl, Moylan, Tajima, Klika, Herrenkohl, Russo, 2011). Parents are not always able to understand how dangerous their maltreatment can be in regards to the future of their children. Parents cannot ask for professional help as they are afraid of some criminal consequences, this is why the outcomes of their inabilities lead to a considerable rising of the financial costs of child abuse (Fang, Brown, Florence, Mercy, 2012).Advertising Looking for research paper on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Professional help and therapy are obligatory for children, who become the victims of maltreatment and abuse within a short period of time. Unfortunately, the investigations prove that the effects of child abuse appear with time and have to be treated on a special level (Cloitre, Cohen, Koenen, 2011). Problem Solution The existing variety of the effects and the inabilities to identify them properly and in time is the problem that has to be solved during current research on the child abuse effects and the reasons of parental neglect. There are several ideas of how the chosen problem should be evaluated, and several methods that can be used to solve the problem that may be implemented with the already known investigations (Fang et al., 2012; Moylan et al., 2010). As it has been already stated, the effects of child abuse and parental neglect is a social issue, this is why it has to be solved within a particular society. The problem solution process should begin with an identification of a community within the frames of which it is possible to organize a project. It is necessary to prove that child abuse is a vital problem, and the question of parental neglect and maltreatment is open and needs more answers and explanations. It is not enough to use the already known statistics and base the project on the fact that more than half a million American children are the victims of their parents’ maltreatment (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). The up-to-date material may be based on the real-life examples and evidence. The solution of the problem under consideration should be based on the following steps:Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on A True Nature of the Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect in a Society specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The identification of the reasons of child abuse and parental neglect; The classification of the child abuse effects and their possible extend; The preventive methods that can be used for each type of abuse; The description of a diagnosis and the identification of treatment for children, who suffer from abuse; Th e ideas of how to involve more people to protect children, who are not able to cope with the challenges of abuse and neglect. Social Implications Social implications of the chosen problem are crucial indeed. First, the project serves as a powerful proof that child abuse is a problem for discussion. Second, it should be proved that a society, as a whole, is the body that takes responsibility for its children. If children suffer from the inabilities to overcome abuse and neglect, the society should think about the most effective methods to improve the situation. Finally, the development of special programs and the creation of special organizations directed to the treatment of abused children should be promoted. For example, there is the National Child Traumatic Stress Network that aims at identifying the standards of care for abused children (Child Welfare Information Gateway, 2013). There are also many organizations that use hypnosis with children survived traumas because of their p arents’ maltreatment (Degun-Mather, 2006). All these methods are effective and help to define the nature of child abuse (Iwaniec, 2006), but they have less in common with the necessity to prevent the cases of child abuse and improve parent-children relations. The current project should help to define the effects of child abuse and think about the prevention of maltreatment taking into consideration the evaluation of child’s condition, health, and the effects of abuse.Advertising Looking for research paper on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Fang et al. (2012) identify short-term and long-term health care costs, Sousa et al. (2011) work with the social problems, and Moylan et al. (2010) focus on the problems with behavior. Each investigation is a specific answer to the question why child abuse should be prevented. However, the researchers do not give suggestions but state the facts. These are the main limitations of such projects, and social implications of the project under analysis teach that it is possible to change the situation in case certain measurements to be taken. Capstone Reflection The problems people face during their childhood are characterized by a number of considerable marks. Children cannot even guess that parental neglect may define their future qualities and abilities. Some children cannot even recognize a case of child abuse and do not find it necessary to address some experts for help (Stalker McArthur, 2012). The identification of such problems and inabilities serve as the basis for the project a bout child abuse and its effects. Children may suffer from emotional, physical, sexual, and other types of abuse (Cloitre, 2011), and each type of abuse has its own effects on a child. This is why it is not only necessary but crucially important to know how to help children, who survived abuse, and treat them properly in regards to the effects of child abuse (Child Welfare Information Gateway, 2013). The capstone project under analysis is an opportunity to understand better parents and their decisions to treat their children poorly, learn the effects that can be observed after the cases of child abuse, and know how to prevent maltreatment if it is possible. The projects by Degun-Mather (2006) about the benefits of hypnosis, Fang et al. (2012) about the economic challenges caused by child abuse, and Moylan et al. (2010) about the peculiarities of domestic violence explain how it is better to identify the effects of child abuse and the possible impact of society on children and their parents. Reference List Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Child Maltreatment: Consequences. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/ Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2013). Long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect. Web. Cloitre, M., Cohen, L.R., Koenen, K.C. (2011). Treating survivors of childhood abuse: Psychotherapy for the interrupted life. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Degun-Mather, M. (2006). Hypnosis, dissociation and survivors of child abuse: Understanding and treatment. West Sussex, England: John Wiley Sons. Fang, X., Brown, D.S., Florence, C.S., Mercy, J.A. (2012). The economic burden of child maltreatment in the United States and implications for prevention. Child Abuse Neglect, 36(2), 156-165. Gloud, F., Clarke, J., Heim, C., Harvey, P.D., Majer, M., Nemeroff, C.B. (2012). The effects of child abuse and neglect on cognitive functioning in adulthood. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 46(4), 500-506. Iwaniec, D. (2006). The emotionally abused an d neglected child: Identification, assessment and intervention. West Sussex, England: John Wiley Sons. Lemoncelli, J.J. (2012). Healing from childhood abuse: Understanding the effects, taking control to recover. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. Moylan, C.A., Herrenkohl, T.I., Sousa, C., Tajima, E.A., Herrenkohl, R.C., Russo, M.J. (2010). The effects of child abuse and exposure to domestic violence on adolescent internalising and externalising behaviour problems. Journal of Family Violence, 25(1), 53-63. Sousa, C., Herrenkohl, T.I., Moylan, C.A., Tajima, E.A., Klika, J.B., Herrenkohl, R.C., Russo,. M.J. (2011). Longitudinal study on the effects of child abuse and children’s exposure to domestic violence, parent-child attachments, and antisocial behavior in adolescence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26(1), 111-136. Stalker, K McArthur, K. (2012). Child abuse, child protection and disabled children: A review of recent research. Child Abuse Review, 21(1), 24-40.

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Analysis of Lewis Structures Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Analysis of Lewis Structures - Research Paper Example The following are examples of the structures in a monoatomic form: Lewis structures are also used to indicate bonding in the form of a dash (-) for covalent bonds or a charge (+ or -) for ionic bonds (Schodek and Bechthold 301). Some examples: The bonds that are formed in the polyatomic structures usually have angles. The angles result in molecular geometry, which is best represented experimentally with the use of balls and sticks. The bonding angles that are involved in the analysis include linear, tetrahedral, trigonal pyramidal, trigonal planar, or bent. These are the geometries used in the Lewis structure experiments, though there are other geometric formations, where the structure does not adhere to the octet rule. Experimental Use The experimental representation of the Lewis structure requires the use of the following materials: A ball that has four holes, to be used as the central atom Inflexible sticks or straws for the single bonds a Flexible sticks or connectors for the dou ble or triple bonds The lone pairs around the central atom requires inflexible sticks NB: the balls used should be different in color as well as size to ease the representation of the elements and the electrons, with the central ball preferably larger. Arranging the experimental balls requires adherence to the guidelines for arranging the atoms, electrons, and bonds in the structures. Guidelines Involved In Using the Structures The rules in the experimental process of producing the Lewis structures follow these steps: 1. Draw the dot and structure diagram of the molecules or ions in question. For this step, knowledge on the bonds formed, their angles as well as geometry is important. The arrangement of the elements in the molecules is first established at this point. The central atom has to be established, the central atom, the element that holds most of the bonds is the structure. The following step to get involved into is the calculation of the valence bonds that are involved in t he bond formation, for a molecule (Schodek and Bechthold 501). The individual atoms and their configuration have to be considered in this case. The periodic table of elements is handy at this stage. The follow-up is the identification of bonds, following the octet rule i.e. a stable atom has to obtain a stable gas configuration in bond formation. 2. Determination of the overall and molecular geometry of the dot structure Using the knowledge of the geometry of formation, only as the octet rule applies, studying the dot structure allows inception of whether the structure is a linear, tetrahedral, trigonal pyramidal, trigonal planar, or bent formation. The main concept regarding the bond formation and geometry is the bond angles, which are 180 ° for the linear, 120 ° for the trigonal planar, 109.5 ° for the tetrahedral, 90 °, 120 ° and 180 ° for the trigonal by pyramidal, 90 ° and 180 ° for the Octahedral, etc (Schodek and Bechthold 492).  Ã‚